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助詞或者是‘ingklitik’是一個獨立無意義的詞語,但在句子中使用時會建立意義;使用助詞可以改變一個陳述的意義。 我們將學習在它加祿語中各種助詞的使用方式

Clitics : 它加祿語的助詞


·ba· is used as a question indicator; it marks the sentence as interrogative ex.: Malaki ba? — Is it big? Uulan ba? — Will it rain?


·na· is the equivalent of ‘already’ or ‘now’ ex.: Wala na. — Now it’s gone. Bukas na. — It’s now open.


this is the equivalent of the word ‘still’; or if the sentence is negative, ‘yet’ ex.: Hindi pa. — Not yet. Gumagana pa. — It’s still working.


·din· or ·rin· is the equivalent of ‘also’ or ‘too’ ex.: Iyan din. — That too. Ako rin. — Me too.


·daw· or ·raw· is used if the speaker is not the primary source of a statement; it can be translated as ‘someone said (that)’ or ‘it is said (that)’ ex.: Maganda raw ito sa katawan. — It is said that this is good for the body. Matagal na raw ito. — Someone said that it’s been there for a long time.


this particle means ‘only’ or ‘just’ ex.: Ikaw lang. — Only you. Ito lang. — Just this.


·muna· can mean ‘for now’ or ‘first’ as an adverb ex.: Kumain ka muna. — Eat first. Huwag ka munang umalis. — Do not leave for now.


·yata· or ·ata· means ‘maybe’ or ‘perhaps’ ex.: Wala yata. — Maybe there is none. May dala ata siya. — Maybe he brings something.


·ulit· is equivalent to ‘again’ ex.: Kumain ulit siya. — He ate again. Inayos ko ulit. — I fixed it again.


just like ·ulit·, ·na naman· means ‘again’, but the difference is that ·na naman· is used to express a negative statement or disapproval of something ex.: Kumain na naman siya. — He (just) ate again. (You don’t like what happened) Inayos ko na naman. — I (just) fixed it again. (You don’t like what you did)


this clitic has many usages, but we’re just going to focus on one of them; ·kasi· can be used to mean ‘because’ ex.: Pangit kasi sila. — Because they are ugly. Maganda kasi. — Because it is beautiful.


it is used as an equivalent of saying “just … instead” ex.: Kumain ka na lang. — Just eat instead. Huwag na lang. — Never mind.


this clitic may change its meaning depending on the tone, but usually it is used to say ‘so far’ ex.: Wala pa naman. — So far there is none. Gumagana pa naman. — So far it’s working.


·pa rin· could be an equivalent of saying ‘until now’ ex.: Wala pa rin. — Until now, there’s none. Mahal pa rin kita. — I’ve been loving you up until now.


·pa lang· is used to say ‘just about (to)’ ex.: Kakain pa lang ako. — I’m just about to eat. Maliligo pa lang si Don. — Don is just about to take a bath.


this clitic is used to express a sudden realization, affirmation, or decision after stating a contrasting statement ex.: Mali ito. Ay! Tama pala. — This is wrong. Oh wait! It’s actually correct. Sasama ako… Huwag na lang, may gagawin pa pala ako. — Let me join… Never mind, (I just realized) I’m going to do something.


·nga· is used to emphasize that the statement has been said earlier or for a couple of times ex.: Hindi ako makasasama kasi wala nga akong pera. — I would not be able to join. As I’ve said, I don’t have money. Kumain na nga ako. — I said I have eaten already.


·naman· has so many uses; it can be used to say ‘meanwhile (while)’ or ‘on the other hand’, to give more emotion in a statement, to emphasize contrast and affirmation, to tone down requests or commands, to give additional statements for convincing, etc. ex.: Si Maria matutulog, si Don naman kakain. — Maria will sleep, while Don will eat. Ang pangit naman! — It’s so ugly! (gives more emotion and stress)

CLITICS: 助詞常見規則


Always remember that VSO (verb-subject-object) is the most common structure used in Tagalog.

Kumain si Ben ng prutas. — Ben ate some fruits. Kumain — verb si — agent marker Ben — agent (subject) ng — patient marker prutas — patient (object) In describing something, we also use this structure; an adjective follows the subject of the sentence

[形容詞 + 主詞]

Maganda si Maria. — Maria is beautiful. Maganda — adjective si — personal name indicator Maria — subject (the one being described) In using a clitic, a clitic is usually placed between the verb or adjective and the subject or object. In other words, a clitic is placed before a verb/adjective and follows a subject/object

[動詞/形容詞 + 助詞 + 主詞/受詞]

Kumain ba si Ben ng prutas? — Did Ben eat some fruits? Kumain — verb ba — question indicator [clitic] si — agent marker Ben — agent ng — patient marker prutas — patient Maganda raw si Maria. — They say Maria is beautiful. Maganda — adjective raw — “they say…” “it is said…” si — personal name indicator Maria — subject (the one being described)

This works well with personal nouns, and polysyllabic pronouns. But with monosyllabic pronouns, there’s a twist. With monosyllabic pronouns, they instead follow the clitics; we only have three monosyllabic pronouns: ·ka·, ·ko·, and ·mo·

[clitic] ako

[clitic] ikaw

ka [clitic]

[clitic] siya

[clitic] kami

[clitic] tayo

[clitic] kayo

[clitic] sila

ko [clitic]

mo [clitic]

[clitic] niya

[clitic] namin

[clitic] natin

[clitic] ninyo

[clitic] nila

Mabait ka kasi.

— Because you are kind. [adjective + monosyllabic pronoun + clitic]

Binili ko na lang. — I just bought it instead.

[verb + monosyllabic pronoun + clitic]

Hawakan mo ulit. — Touch it again.

[verb + monosyllabic pronoun + clitic]

let’s have some more example sentences using clitics

Tulog na yata siya. — Perhaps he’s already asleep.

Ayos lang, maganda naman si Anna. — It’s fine, Anna is beautiful anyway.

Kumakain ka pala ng hipon? — I didn’t know you eat shrimps.

Masarap daw siya magluto. — They say he cooks well.

Matulog ka muna ulit, maaga pa naman. — Sleep again for now. Besides, it’s still early.

Pwede mo bang pahinaan iyan? Ang ingay kasi e. — Could you turn down its volume? It’s so noisy, you know.

Sinira mo na naman!? — Did you just break it again!?

Ano nga ulit pangalan mo? — What’s your name again?

Magbisikleta ka na lang. — Just ride a bike instead.

Maayos pa naman kami. — So far, we are good.

Naglilinis pa lang ako. — I’m still cleaning (I’m just about to do another thing).

Kumuha ka pa. — Get some more.

Gusto mo ba? — Do you want?

Pilipino rin ako. — I’m also a Filipino.

Tumulong ka naman ako. — Would you mind helping me? — Help me (please).